Fennel to normalize digestion

In appearance it is dill, so its second name is pharmacy dill. The smell of fennel resembles the smell of anise, only a little sweeter. Fennel fruits are used for medicinal purposes. Also on their basis is prepared essential oil. In cooking, you can use plant seeds as a seasoning, leaves to decorate and flavor the food, and fennel “bulbs” are often served as a garnish.

Beneficial features

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Pistachios – composition, benefit and harm

Pistachios are the edible seeds of the cashew tree family. In China, pistachios are called “happy nuts”, due to the half-open shell.

Seeds contain a lot of protein, fat, dietary fiber and vitamin B6. They are eaten fresh or fried. Pistachios are used in the preparation of dishes, desserts, halva and ice cream.

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Walnut – benefit, harm and contraindications

Grease the mug using vegetable oil. Add bread cubes to the cup to fill it to the top. In a small bowl, whip together the banana puree, coconut milk, flaxseed, vanilla and cinnamon. Refrigerate for 10-15 minutes. Pour the liquid into a mug of bread cubes, making sure that the liquid reaches the bottom. Microwave on high for two minutes. You can decorate with powdered sugar, slices of banana and maple syrup.

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Why is pumpkin seed oil useful?

Pumpkin seed oil is also called “black” or “green” gold because of its beneficial properties and high cost. Pumpkin oil is used not only for medicinal purposes, the dishes cooked with it have a distinctive taste and aroma.

Pumpkin seed oil contains vitamins A, B1, B2, B6, C, E, K, P, PP, phospholipids, carotenoids, tocopherols, flavonoids, as well as iron, magnesium, zinc, selenium, potassium, calcium and other useful elements. The main advantage of pumpkin oil is the presence of polyunsaturated fatty acids: vitamin F, Omega-3 and Omega-6 fatty acids.

Why is it good to eat pumpkin seed oil

  • Pumpkin oil affects the processes of digestion and assimilation of useful substances from incoming products. It contains many unsaturated fatty acids, flavonoids, phospholipids, which improve the composition of bile and help it in time to separate and participate in the processes of digestion. Pumpkin oil restores the functions of the liver and relieves inflammation on this organ. When gastritis and ulcer pumpkin oil helps to heal wounds and normalize the level of acidity. Pumpkin seed oil is a mild laxative.
  • It is very useful for the work of the heart and the integrity of the blood vessels. It also neutralizes the harmful effects of free radicals, protects the cardiovascular system from the disorders that they can cause. Included in the oil vitamins and trace elements help to normalize heart rate. And unsaturated fatty acids strengthen the walls of blood vessels and prevent blood flow to clog.
  • Pumpkin seed oil is effective in treating both acute and chronic respiratory inflammations – it has a mild antitussive and expectorant effect.
  • This oil is used both externally and inward. It helps to treat various diseases and violations of the integrity of the skin, promotes healing of wounds, reduce allergic reactions, redness and rash.
  • Pumpkin seed oil is a great helper to immunity. It increases the body’s resistance to infections and viruses, reduces the intensity of the course of chronic diseases, thereby relieving the immune system.
  • Oil helps the genitourinary system to work without failures. It has a mild diuretic effect and combats inflammatory processes that provoke kidney disease.
  • It helps with eye diseases: relieves puffiness, fatigue, improves visual acuity, strengthens the retina.
  • Pumpkin seed oil, just like pumpkin seed, is a long-known antihelminthic. To get rid of parasites should drink pumpkin oil a teaspoon twice a day – half an hour before meals or an hour after.
  • Pumpkin oil is used in the recovery after chronic diseases, surgical interventions – the course of oil consumption can last about a year.
  • This oil is very beneficial for men’s health. It relieves inflammation and has an antitumor effect, and also has a positive effect on erection and sperm production.
  • Pumpkin seed oil is recommended for the child’s diet: from the first days of a child’s life outwardly against diaper rash, redness, irritation, bites. And with the introduction of complementary foods and vegetable fats, pumpkin seed oil can be added to cereals and salads.
  • Pumpkin oil helps with brittle nails, hair loss and will cause the skin to look healthy: removes redness. It evens facial tone, improves metabolic processes in skin tissues, protects against harmful radicals and slows down aging processes.

However, there are some side effects, namely:

• frequent stools;• rarely, but allergies are possible;
• Especially carefully it is necessary to take oil with calculous cholecystitis, as it can provoke the release of stones;

• harmful for diabetes.

Of course, pumpkin seed oil is very useful, but be prudent – consult with your doctor before use, because this product should be taken strictly by prescription, not exceeding the dosage.

How to choose a natural pumpkin oil? To do this, you should pay attention to the following:

• its real color should be dark green, and if you look at a different angle, it can cast a dark red or dark brown color;

• must be thick and without a particularly pronounced smell;

• must not be bitter.

Pumpkin seed oil contains a large amount of easily digestible proteins, macro- and microelements (over 50), minerals, vitamins and other biologically active substances that contribute to a beneficial effect on the human body as a whole, as well as on its immune system. That is why pumpkin seed oil is far from the last place, both in traditional medicine and in the practice of modern nutritionists and cosmetologists.

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What vegetable oils are best suited for different ways of cooking?

There are dozens of vegetable oils. Sunflower, rapeseed, coconut – these are just the most popular ones that many people use every day. But according to their purpose? After all, not all products of this group are suitable for frying. On which oils can we fry and bake, and which ones are intended exclusively for salads, sauces and dressings and why?

What to pour on the pan?

Nutritionists advice for frying to choose oils that, under the influence of temperature, are less susceptible to the process of decomposition of fatty acids, that is, are characterized by the so-called high temperature of smoke. Another rule is to choose oils that are not a product of cold-pressed, since they demonstrate greater sensitivity to heat treatment compared to refined ones.

So, what to choose for frying? The three main ones are refined rapeseed, coconut and rice oils. More expensive oil for thermal processing – from avocado. Conditionally suitable – refined olive.

Why and why vegetable products that are used in our kitchens are especially good?

Rapeseed oil – ideal for frying

Rapeseed is one of the cheapest and at the same time the most useful vegetable oils. Contains a large amount of monounsaturated fatty acids and at the same time – a minimum of saturated. The correct proportions of omega-3 and omega-6 fatty acids make rapeseed oil have a positive effect on heart function and pressure, and therefore reduce the risk of atherosclerosis and diseases of the cardiovascular system. This vegetable fat is suitable for use both in cold form (for example, for salads or dressings), and for frying (if refined), as it has a high temperature of smoke.

Sunflower oil – only for cold

This oil is one of the most popular vegetable oils in our area. Many people consider it a universal product – suitable for frying, baking, and cold use. This is a big mistake. Despite the high temperature of smoking, nutritionists do not advise frying in sunflower oil. It contains a lot of polyunsaturated fatty acids, which decompose at high temperatures, which is definitely not beneficial to health. This product is correctly applied only in cold form – for salad dressings and dressings. Although the oil from sunflower seeds is not the most favorable for the human body ratio of omega-3 and -6 fatty acids, nutritionists do not recommend excluding it from the diet completely, as it is a valuable source of phytosterols and vitamin E.

Coconut oil – for health and beauty

Coconut oil is known, first of all, for its amazing caring properties, but it does an excellent job with its tasks in the kitchen. For some people, the product has become a real pet, which they have been using for many years. You can use it instead of butter and spread them bread. Desserts, pastries and cakes based on it taste great. Due to the fact that coconut oil has a high temperature of smoke, you can fry pancakes, pancakes on it, but it is also excellent as a basis for dressings and salad dressings.

Paradoxically, coconut oil is an excellent way to lose weight. The fat from coconut pulp, consumed in appropriate quantities, allows you to get rid of obesity (especially abdominal), as it is used by the body to produce energy and burn calories and, therefore, is not deposited in the form of excess fat tissue. This was confirmed by research scientists published in the medical journal Lipids. Studies have also shown that, despite the saturated fat content, coconut oil does not adversely affect the blood lipid profile.

Rice oil – perfect for everything.

This is a very popular fat in Asia, but today it is more and more often found in our stores. Appreciated for the mild taste that helps to reveal the natural flavor of the dish. The product has a high temperature of smoke and a favorable ratio of saturated and unsaturated fatty acids. Therefore, it can be used for frying at very high temperatures.

But it also “works” well in the cold, as an addition to salads and dressings. The great advantage of rice oil is not only its versatility, but also the beneficial effect on our health. Due to the vitamin E and gamma ornidazole contained in it, the product slows down the aging process and reduces the level of cholesterol in the blood. But that’s not all: he also produces an antitumor effect and eases the symptoms of menopause.

Linseed oil – to improve well-being

This fat is intended to be used exclusively in the cold and is a rich source of omega-3 unsaturated fatty acids, which improve brain function, regulate the amount of hormones and stimulate digestive processes. The product also has a positive effect on well-being. It is useful to know that the best is unrefined, cold pressed and as fresh as possible. Flaxseed oil can not stand for more than 3 months, and after breaking the integrity of the package should be used a maximum of a month. In addition, it must be highly linoleic (made from unmodified flax seeds) and contain at least 50% omega-3 fatty acids. The storage method is also important: it is better if you put it in a dark and cool place, and the bottle will be made of dark glass.

Avocado oil – for memory and concentration

Avocado oil has a dark green color, and tastes like olive. It can be widely used in cooking: it has one of the highest smoking temperatures of all vegetable oils, so it can be used for frying, baking, stewing food (but the product must be refined), and thanks to its mild taste it is suitable for consumption and cold sauces and dressings. Avocado oil is a very valuable source of unsaturated fatty acids, as well as lecithin, which is a building material for brain cells, protects the stomach and liver, and improves blood circulation. And choline contained in lecithin improves concentration, memory processes. Therefore, avocado oil, rich in this substance, is recommended for people who study or work mentally.

Olive Oil Benefits

Rich in antioxidants, vitamin K, and vitamin E, olive oil boasts a very good nutritional profile. It has mono-saturated fats like oleic acid and palmitoleic acid, which constitutes 10g of the total fatty acid count of 14g in this oil. As per the USDA, olive oil is also free of carbs and cholesterol, thereby reducing the risk of heart diseases.  The calorie count of this oil is similar to canola oil or butter, at around 120 calories in 1 tbsp of olive oil.

The health benefits of olive oil include treatment of colon and breast cancer, diabetes, heart problems, arthritis, and high cholesterol. It also aids in weight loss, improves metabolism, digestion, and prevents aging. It is a staple ingredient for many culinary preparations and also serves a variety of medicinal purposes.

It helps in lowering the bad cholesterol levels in our blood, as it is rich in monounsaturated fats. The extra virgin olive oil variety contains the highest level of antioxidant polyphenols and oleic acid. It is thus a healthier option compared to other vegetable oils.

However, it also has lots of calories, so it should be used in moderate amounts for the best health results.

• Extra-virgin olive oil: Derived from the first press of olives, this oil boasts the most full-bodied flavor. It can be used for all forms of savory cooking, including sautéing, stir-frying, roasting and marinating, and is the best choice for bread dipping and salad dressing.

• Olive oil: Also known as “pure,” it’s typically milder than extra-virgin and more yellow in color. While not quite as high-quality as extra-virgin, it’s great for savory cooking and adds flavor and depth to a dish.

• Extra-light olive oil: For this oil, the term “light” does not apply to its nutritional makeup but rather to the oil’s color, texture and flavor. The mildest of all the oils, it’s best for baking and savory cooking at very high temperatures.

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5 facts about avitaminosis

According to statistics, 30-80% of the world population suffers a constant lack of vitamins C, B1, B2, B6 and folic acid. 40-60% of people suffer from a lack of carotene, in some regions, doctors have noted a serious deficiency of fluorine and selenium, and iodine and calcium – everywhere. What foods you need to eat to get all the necessary vitamins and not to suffer from vitamin deficiency?

1. Are there the most vitamin vegetables and fruits?

Vegetable food can provide us with the required amount of only vitamin C. These are wild rose, sweet peppers, potatoes, cabbage, citrus fruits … But in addition to vitamin C, there are 12 other vitamins known today in science. For example, there is practically no vitamin A in vegetables and fruits. And sources of vitamins of group B are meat and vegetable grain, and not processed. Of course, vegetables and fruits are useful – they contain fiber, as well as bioflavonoids. But the widespread idea that only they are a storehouse of vitamins is completely wrong.

2. Food against avitaminosis

The current diet of an average person, in principle, is not able to provide us with vitamins in the right quantity. We eat monotonous and eat a lot of refined foods that are very poor in vitamins. For example, to get enough vitamin B2, you need to drink 2 liters of milk per day (and not fat-free), or eat one and a half kilograms of beef, or ten eggs. But the lack of this vitamin also leads to a lack of vitamin B6, D, folic acid .

3. Consequences of avitaminosis

Without vitamins, all those processes in the body that take place with the participation of enzymes are impossible. For example, B1 basically “works” in those enzymes that provide the body with energy. B6 is involved in protein metabolism. Pantothenic acid is needed by enzymes that are engaged in obtaining energy during the oxidation of fats. Vitamins are not any stimulants, they are absolutely necessary substances without which the metabolism is disturbed.

4. What is enrichment of products with vitamins and can there be an overdose of vitamins

Vitamin enrichment of food products – bread, milk, juices, confectionery products – is able to fight against vitamin deficiency. This became clear 50 years ago, when the USSR passed a law on the mandatory fortification of flour with vitamins B1, B5 and PP to the original level of unprocessed grains. But in our country this law has never been enforced. Therefore, if it is not possible to constantly eat fortified foods, then it is necessary to take multivitamin complexes.

At the same time, an excess of water-soluble vitamins is excreted from the body. In addition to vitamin B6, but an overdose of it should be about a hundred times more than the norm within a few months for it to create a health risk. And fat-soluble A and D must be obtained in hundreds and thousands of times more daily need for their concentration to become dangerous.

5. Vitamin pills and natural vitamins. What is the difference

These are the same vitamins, they perform the same functions. Of course, for a person it is more natural and easier to get vitamins with food. But today the food is no longer what it was a hundred years ago. Breeding has always been aimed at increasing yields and durability: so that more is born and that it is kept longer. In this case, none of the breeders did not set the task to increase the content of vitamins, nobody even thought about it. And the Japanese realized first – they conducted a study that showed that the content of vitamin C in the cultivated varieties of apples, mandarins and oranges, which dominate the market, is 10 times less than in the wild.

In addition, during storage, food loses vitamins. They are destroyed by exposure to light, from contact with air. Salad and greens at room temperature in the sun completely lose their vitamin C in just a few hours.

You can get rid of hypovitaminosis, if you start to eat foods that are rich in missing substances. You can compensate for their lack of vitamin pills. But if you compare the effectiveness of products and tablets, then, according to Professor Kozarin, the benefits of the former will be higher, because, unlike “synthetics,” they will be absorbed almost completely. But whatever you eat and whatever you take, do not take matters to the extreme, for example, do not heal with “shock” doses of vitamins. After all, they have the other side of the coin – hypervitaminosis. This condition is no less dangerous to human health than hypovitaminosis. Therefore, if you are actively being treated for some hypovitaminosis and notice symptoms of vitamin overdose, you should immediately stop taking foods rich in appropriate vitamin and consult a doctor.

Which vitamins do not enough more than all?

1 PLACE – Vitamin C

Characteristic signs of failure. Bleeding gums, bruises on the skin after minor bruises, loose teeth, dry and pale skin.

How to fill *? Sauerkraut (300 g), dog rose broth (2 cups per day), citrus (3 oranges, 5-6 tangerine), kiwi (1-2 pcs.), Vitamin tablets.

Signs of excess. Diarrhea, pain during urination, fractures.

2 PLACE – Vitamin A

Signs of failure. Decreased visual acuity, especially at dusk; growth retardation in children, reduced immunity, pustules on the skin.

How to fill *? Vegetables of orange and red color (for example, 1 kg of carrots, 1.5 kg of sweet pepper), liver of animals (1000 g), yolk of eggs (3 eggs), vitamin tablets.

Signs of excess. Headache, pain in the bones and joints, dry and cracked skin, itching and rash on the skin, hair loss.

3 PLACE – Vitamin B1

Signs of failure. Frequent mood swings, poor sleep, muscle weakness, cramps, pain in the legs, nausea, frequent heartbeat.

How to fill *? Pork (150 g), beef liver (50 g), bran bread (100 g), legumes (250 g), vitamin tablets.

Signs of excess. Vitamin B1 affects the absorption of all other vitamins, so the symptoms of its lack will be the symptoms of an overdose of other vitamins.

* Daily doses of vitamin in the product

How to keep healthy substances?

It often happens that a person eats the right food, but he still has signs of hypovitaminosis. The fact is that many vitamins are rather unstable compounds: they are destroyed by sunlight and heat. For example, parsley, which has lain on the kitchen table at room temperature for two days, loses about 80% of the vitamins. Therefore, all fortified foods should be stored in a dark and cold place. Well suited fridge or basement. And when feeding products to the table, for example, garlic or greens, it is better not to grind them, but serve them whole. So they will preserve more vitamins. In addition, vitamins die during cooking. Therefore, if possible, eat vegetables and fruits raw, cook them, and do not fry – during cooking only 50% of vitamins are destroyed, and during frying – almost everything.

Risk group

There are categories of people prone to hypovitaminosis more than others. These are: 1. Those who suffer from diseases of the gastrointestinal tract. These include inflammations of the stomach, intestines (enteritis, colitis), liver and pancreas. Even if these patients receive the vitamins in normal daily doses, the body will not be able to absorb them because of their lack of assimilation by the diseased organs. 2. Pregnant and lactating. Expectant mothers need to eat 1.5 times more vitamins, because besides themselves, they feed them and the baby. 3. Workaholics and athletes. As with increased mental, and with increased physical activity, the consumption of vitamins increases by about 2 times. Accurately calculate how many vitamins you need, you can at the reception of a dietitian. 4. Those who abuse sweet and alcohol. These foods also cause increased consumption of vitamins.

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Food products rich with magnesium

Magnesium is the main structural element of living organisms, an integral component of the bone tissue of animals and humans, as well as the green pigment (chlorophyll) of plants. Mineral activates more than 350 enzymes that are responsible for the absorption of lipids, proteins and nutrients.

In the body of an adult with a mass of 70 kilograms, 20 to 30 grams of magnesium are concentrated: 60% in the bones of the skeleton, 40% in cells and tissues, 1% in the intercellular space.

Interestingly, by the level of content in the body, this macrocell ranks fourth, behind sodium, potassium and calcium.

Biological role

The primary function of magnesium is to form bone tissue and speed up the metabolism.

Other useful properties of the macro:

  • increases the immune activity of cells;
  • maintains the stability of genetic material (DNA and RNA), preventing the occurrence of mutations;
  • slows down the release of histamine from mast cells;
  • coordinates the heart rhythm (reduces myocardial contractility, reduces the heart rate and high blood pressure);
  • increases bone mineral density, preventing the appearance of fractures (together with calcium and phosphorus);
  • activates enzyme systems, including peptidases, phosphatases, carboxylases, phosphorylases, cholinesterase, pyruvate kinase, keto acid decarboxylase;
  • participates in the synthesis of nucleic acids, fats, proteins, vitamins of group B, collagen;
  • maintains homeostasis of potassium, calcium, sodium;
  • accelerates the elimination of toxic substances from the body, including cholesterol deposits;
  • potentiates the disaggregation of platelets, resulting in improved “fluidity” of blood;
  • normalizes the processes of inhibition and excitation in the brain;
  • regulates the permeability of mitochondrial and cell membranes;
  • participates in the conduct of nerve signals;
  • controls blood sugar levels;
  • prevents calcium deposits in the kidneys, gallbladder, ureters, bones (together with vitamin B6);
  • increases osmotic pressure of intestinal contents, accelerating the passage of fecal masses;
  • participates in the processes of neuromuscular excitation, improving the contractility of the muscles (together with calcium);
  • accelerates the transformation of creatine phosphate to adenosine triphosphate, potentiating the energy metabolism reactions;
  • increases the body’s resistance to stress.

Along with this, products with a high concentration of magnesium help in the fight against insomnia, migraines, anxiety, and nervous disorders.

Daily needs

The daily rate of magnesium is directly dependent on gender, age and physiological state of a person.

Daily need is:

  • for newborns up to 5 months – 30 to 50 milligrams;
  • for infants from 6 months to 1 year – 70 milligrams;
  • for babies up to 3 years old – 100 milligrams;
  • for children from 4 to 7 years – 150 – 170 milligrams;
  • for schoolchildren from 9 – 13 years old – 250 milligrams;
  • for young people up to 30 years old – 310 – 350 milligrams;
  • for adults – 400 milligrams;
  • during pregnancy and lactation – 450 – 700 milligrams.

The need for magnesium increases with:

  • stress;
  • protein diet;
  • pregnancy, breastfeeding;
  • the formation of new tissues (in children, bodybuilders);
  • the postoperative period;
  • alcohol abuse;
  • diuretics, laxatives, estrogen, hormonal contraceptives.

In addition, it is advisable to take magnesium foods in menopausal women (450-500 milligrams), in order to mitigate menopausal manifestations and reduce nervous excitability.

Deficiency and excess

A balanced diet, in 80% of cases, covers the body’s daily need for magnesium. However, due to the industrial processing of raw materials (refining, cleaning, grinding, pasteurization), the concentration of the mineral in the food is halved. In addition, many people do not receive the macro element in proper volume, because they lead an unhealthy lifestyle or have chronic pathologies of the digestive tract.

Considering that magnesium is a cofactor of enzymes and a regulator of biochemical reactions in the body, its deficiency reduces immunity and causes functional disorders.

Signs of magnesium deficiency:

  • increased infectious diseases;
  • constant fatigue;
  • prolonged seasonal depression;
  • decreased performance;
  • long recovery period;
  • anxiety, phobias, anxiety;
  • insomnia, morning tiredness;
  • irritability;
  • glare before eyes;
  • muscle spasms, twitches, cramps;
  • sensitivity to noise and changing weather;
  • dizziness;
  • lack of coordination of movements;
  • drops in blood pressure;
  • heart rhythm disorders;
  • spasmodic abdominal pain, accompanied by diarrhea;
  • hair loss, brittleness of the nail plates.

In addition, a characteristic symptom of hypomagnesemia, according to scientists N.M. Nazarova, V.N. Prilepskaya, E.A. Mezhevitinovoy, is a premenstrual syndrome caused by a decrease in the concentration of red blood cells in the blood.

Exogenous factors provoking a lack of a mineral in the body:

  • adherence to rigid mono-diet, starvation;
  • insufficient magnesium content in the daily menu;
  • excessive consumption of calcium, protein and lipid foods;
  • chronic alcoholism, smoking;
  • hormonal contraception;
  • magnesium depleted intake for parenteral or enteral nutrition;
  • lack of vitamins B1, B2, B6 in the diet.

However, almost always hypomagnesemia occurs against the background of pathologies of internal organs.

Endogenous causes of magnesium deficiency:

  • violation of nutrient absorption due to diarrhea or enteric fistulas;
  • kidney disease;
  • diabetes mellitus with consistently high blood sugar levels;
  • myocardial infarction;
  • hyperfunction of the thyroid and parathyroid glands:
  • circulatory failure, especially stagnant;
  • cirrhosis of the liver;
  • increased aldosterone synthesis (adrenal hormone).

In addition, long-term use of diuretics, diuretics, glucocorticosteroids, cytotoxic drugs and estrogen is fraught with the development of local hypomagnesemia.

Remember, macroelement deficiency is difficult to diagnose by blood analysis, since 99% of the nutrient is concentrated inside the cell structures, and only 1%? In the blood plasma. In view of this, anamnesis is established according to the symptoms, having previously evaluated the clinical condition of the patient.

Magnesium overdose, in 90% of cases, develops against the background of renal failure, increased protein catabolism, non-curative diabetic acidosis, uncontrolled use of drugs, and foods containing microelements.

Symptoms of hypomagnesemia:

  • violation of speech, coordination;
  • drowsiness;
  • slow pulse;
  • lethargy;
  • decrease in heart rate (bradycardia);
  • dry mucous membranes;
  • abdominal pain;
  • nausea, vomiting, diarrhea.

Prolonged hypomagnesemia is fraught with persistent lowering of blood pressure, respiratory paralysis, and in rare cases, cardiac arrest.

What influences magnesium development in the body?

The action of the macro is the formation of protein, enzyme structures and maintaining calcium homeostasis.

However, some substances slow down the absorption of magnesium in the intestine, which leads to a violation of the full course of biochemical reactions.

Consider the scale of compatibility of the mineral with some compounds.

  1. Consumption of magnesium with calcium, sodium or phosphorus leads to a decrease in the absorption of the first macrocell.
  2. Iron reduces the absorption of magnesium in the duodenum.
  3. If you combine the mineral with taking excessively fatty foods, the formation of soap-like salts occurs, which are not absorbed in the digestive tract.
  4. With additional folic acid intake, the need for macronutrient increases.
  5. Vitamins E and B6 improve the exchange of magnesium in the body.
  6. Macroelement actively interacts with insulin, increasing its production by half.
  7. Excessive intake of potassium in the body, accelerates the excretion of magnesium by the kidneys.
  8. High-protein diet violates the absorption of the element in the body.
  9. Vitamins D and C increase the pharmacological properties of magnesium.
  10. Abuse of caffeine, alcohol, white sugar leads to a deterioration in the absorption of the mineral.
  11. Erythromycin, tetracycline reduce the effectiveness of the macro.

Food products rich with magnesium

Mineral is supplied to the body together with food and hard water. To eliminate chronic hypomagnesemia, drugs and supplements are used, the main active ingredient of which is the missing element. In regions with soft tap water, the daily need for a compound is filled by plant products.

                “Natural sources of magnesium”

Product Name                     Magnesium content per 100 grams of product, milligrams

Pumpkin seeds (raw)                                              530

Wheat Bran                                                                450

Cocoa 20%                                                                 440

Sesame seeds                                                            350 – 450

Hazelnuts                                                                    315

Cashews (raw)                                                            270 – 290

Almond (fried)                                                            260

Pine nuts (peeled)                                                      245

Wheatgrass (untreated)                                             240

Buckwheat (fresh)                                                      230

Watermelon (without nitrates)                                224

Cornflakes (whole)                                                     214

Peanuts                                                                       180

Hazelnut                                                                       175

Sea Kale                                                                       170

Oatmeal (whole)                                                         130

Sunflower seeds, peas                                                125 – 129

Rosehip (dried)                                                            120

Walnut                                                                           90 – 100

Dates (dried, without processing)                             85

Spinach (fresh)                                                             80

Dutch cheese                                                                50 – 60

Boiled buckwheat                                                       50

Pearl barley, millet, barley                                        45

Beans                                                                              45 – 100

Dried apricots, prunes (without treatment)          45 – 50

Rye Bread                                                                      40

Lentils (boiled)                                                             35

Russian cheese                                                              30 – 40

Green Peas (Fresh)                                                        30

Remember, when cooking, soaking or peeling, 30 – 60% of the beneficial compound is lost.

Magnesium is an indispensable component of the human body, responsible for the coordinated work of all body systems, especially the immune, nervous and musculoskeletal.

The macroelement in the composition of enzymes is involved in the processes of digestion, the formation of bone, cartilage and connective tissue, muscle contractility, energy production, the activation of B vitamins, the creation of new cells. In addition, the substance controls the successful course of pregnancy and prevents the risk of complications, including pre-eclampsia.

Lack of magnesium in the daily menu is manifested by poor health, frequent infectious diseases, sensitivity to stress, increased fatigue, changes in the blood. To prevent hypomagnesemia, it is important to regularly eat foods rich in magnesium, in particular, wheat bran, cocoa, buckwheat, nuts, cereals, legumes.





Vitamins and minerals

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I am sure all of you know that we cannot be healthy without vitamins and minerals.

Vitamins help your body grow and work the way it should. These include at least 30 vitamins, minerals, and dietary components that your body needs but cannot manufacture on its own in sufficient amounts.

Vitamins have different jobs–helping you resist infections, keeping your nerves healthy, and helping your body get energy from food or your blood to clot properly. By following the Dietary Guidelines, you will get enough of most of these vitamins from food.

Minerals also help your body function. Some minerals, like iodine and fluoride, are only needed in very small quantities. Others, such as calcium, magnesium, and potassium, are needed in larger amounts.

There is a fine line between getting enough of these nutrients (which is healthy) and getting too much (which can end up harming you). Eating a healthy diet remains the best way to get sufficient amounts of the vitamins and minerals you need.


Foods that have it: Milk, fortified non dairy alternatives like soy milk, yogurt, hard cheeses, fortified cereals, kale, green leafy vegetables, legumes, tofu, molasses, sardines, okra, perch, trout, Chinese cabbage, rhubarb, sesame seeds

How much you need:

  • Adults ages 19-50: 1,000 milligrams per day
  • Women age 51 and older: 1,200 milligrams per day
  • Men age 51 – 70: 1,000 milligrams per day
  • Men 71 and older: 1,200 milligrams per day

What it does: Needed for bone growth and strength, blood clotting, muscle contraction, and more

Deficiency: Long-term inadequate intake can result in low bone mineral density, rickets, osteomalacia and osteoporosis.

Don’t get more than this a day: 2,500 milligrams per day for adults age 50 and younger, 2,000 mg per day for those 51 and older


Foods that have it: Milk, liver, eggs, peanuts

How much you need:

  • Men: 550 milligrams per day
  • Women: 425 milligrams per day
  • Pregnant women: 450 milligrams per day
  • Breastfeeding women: 550 milligrams per day

What it does: Helps make cells

Don’t get more than this much: 3,500 milligrams per day


Foods that have it: Broccoli, potatoes, meats, poultry, fish, some cereals, lettuce, onions, tomatoes, whole grains,, mushrooms, oats, prunes, nuts, brewer’s yeast

How much you need:

  • Men ages 19-50: 35 micrograms per day
  • Women ages 19-50: 25 micrograms per day, unless pregnant or breastfeeding
  • Pregnant women: 30 micrograms per day
  • Breastfeeding women: 45 micrograms per day
  • Men age 51 and up: 30 micrograms per day
  • Women age 51 and up: 20 micrograms per day

What it does: Helps control blood sugar levels

Deficiency: Symptoms include impaired glucose tolerance and elevated circulating insulin

Don’t get more than this much: No upper limit known for adults


Foods that have it: Seafood, nuts, seeds, wheat bran cereals, whole grains, mushrooms, green leafy vegetables, barley, soybeans, tempeh, sunflower seeds, navy beans, garbanzo beans, cashews, molasses, liver

How much you need:

  • Adults: 900 micrograms per day, unless pregnant or breastfeeding
  • Pregnant women: 1,000 micrograms per day
  • Breastfeeding women: 1,300 micrograms per day

What it does: Helps your body process iron

Deficiency: Relatively uncommon. Clinical sign is hypochromic anemia unresponsive to iron therapy. Neutropenia and leukopenia may also result. Hypopigmentation of skin and hair is also noticed. Those at risk for deficiency include premature infants, infants fed only cow’s milk formula, those with malabsorption syndromes, excessive zinc consumption and antacid use.

Don’t get more than this much: 8,000 micrograms per day for adults


Foods that have it: Plant foods, including oatmeal, lentils, peas, beans, fruits, and vegetables

How much you need:

  • Men ages 19-50: 38 grams per day
  • Women ages 19-50: 25 grams per day, unless pregnant or breastfeeding
  • Pregnant women: 25 to 30 grams per day
  • Men age 51 and up: 30 grams per day
  • Women age 51 and up: 21 grams per day

What it does: Helps with digestion, lowers LDL (“bad”) cholesterol, helps you feel full, and helps maintain blood sugar levels

Don’t get more than this much: No upper limit from foods for adults


Foods that have it: Fluoridated water, some sea fish, tea

How much you need:

  • Men: 4 milligrams per day
  • Women: 3 milligrams per day. This includes pregnant or breastfeeding women.

What it does: Prevents cavities in teeth, helps with bone growth

Deficiency: Increased risk of dental caries.

Don’t get more than this much: 10 milligrams per day for adults

Folic acid (folate)

Foods that have it:  Enriched and whole grain breads; fortified cereals, green leafy vegetables, asparagus, broccoli, Brussels sprouts, citrus fruits, black eyed peas, spinach, great northern beans, baked beans, green peas, avocado, peanuts, lettuce, tomato juice, banana, papaya, organ meats

How much you need:

  • Adults: 400 micrograms per day, unless pregnant or breastfeeding
  • Pregnant women: 600 micrograms per day
  • Breastfeeding women: 500 micrograms per day

What it does: Helps prevent birth defects, important for heart health and for cell development

Deficiency: One may notice anemia (macrocytic/megaloblastic), sprue, Leukopenia, thrombocytopenia, weakness, weight loss, cracking and redness of tongue and mouth, and diarrhea. In pregnancy there is a risk of low birth weight and preterm delivery.

Don’t get more than this much: 1,000 micrograms per day for adults


Foods that have it: Seaweed, seafood, dairy products, processed foods, iodized salt, eggs, strawberries, asparagus, green leafy vegetables

How much you need:

  • Adults: 150 micrograms per day, unless pregnant or breastfeeding
  • Pregnant women: 209 micrograms per day
  • Breastfeeding women: 290 micrograms per day

What it does: Helps make thyroid hormones

Deficiency: Impairs growth and neurological development. Deficiency can also result in the decreased production of thyroid hormones and hypertrophy of the thyroid.

Don’t get more than this much: 1,100 micrograms per day for adults


Foods that have it: Fortified cereals, lentils, beef, turkey (dark meat), soy beans, spinach, almonds, apricots, baked beans, dates, lima beans, kidney beans, raisins, brown rice, green leafy vegetables, broccoli, pumpkin seeds, tuna, flounder, chicken meat, pork

How much you need:

  • Men age 19 and up: 8 milligrams per day
  • Women ages 19-50: 18 milligrams per day, unless pregnant or breastfeeding
  • Pregnant women: 27 milligrams per day
  • Breastfeeding women: 10 milligrams per day
  • Women age 51 and up: 8 milligrams per day

What it does: Needed for red blood cells and many enzymes

Deficiency: Anemia with small and pale red blood cells. In children it is associated with behavioral abnormalities.

Don’t get more than this much: 45 milligrams per day for adults


Foods that have it: Green leafy vegetables, nuts, dairy, soybeans, potatoes, whole wheat, quinoa, legumes, seeds, fruits, avocado

How much you need:

  • Men ages 19-30: 400 milligrams per day
  • Men age 31 and up: 420 milligrams per day
  • Women ages 19-30: 310 milligrams per day, unless pregnant or breastfeeding
  • Women age 31 and up: 320 milligrams per day, unless pregnant or breastfeeding
  • Pregnant women: 350-360 milligrams per day
  • Breastfeeding women: 310-320 milligrams per day

What it does: Helps with heart rhythm, muscle and nerve function, bone strength

Deficiency: Very rare due to abundance of magnesium in foods. Those with gastrointestinal disorders, kidney disorders, and alcoholism are at risk.

Don’t get more than this much: For the magnesium that’s naturally in food and water, there is no upper limit.

For magnesium in supplements or fortified foods: 350 milligrams per day


Foods that have it: Nuts, beans and other legumes, tea, whole grains, green leafy vegetables, berries, pineapple, lettuce, tempeh, oats, soybeans, spelt, brown rice, garbanzo beans

How much you need:

  • Men: 2.3 milligrams per day
  • Women: 1.8 milligrams per day, unless pregnant or breastfeeding
  • Pregnant women: 2.0 milligrams per day
  • Breastfeeding women: 2.6 milligrams per day

What it does: Helps form bones and make some enzymes

Deficiency: Not typically observed in humans.

Don’t get more than this much: 11 milligrams per day for adults


Foods that have it: Legumes, leafy vegetables, grains, nuts

How much you need:

  • Adults: 45 micrograms per day, unless pregnant or breastfeeding
  • Pregnant or breastfeeding women: 50 micrograms per day

What it does: Needed to make some enzymes

Deficiency: Never been observed in healthy people.

Don’t get more than this much: 2,000 micrograms per day for adults


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Foods that have it: Milk and other dairy products, peas, meat, eggs, some cereals and breads, legumes, nuts, seeds, whole grains, fish, buckwheat, seafood, corn, wild rice

How much you need:

  • Adults: 700 milligrams per day

What it does: Cells need it to work normally. Helps make energy. Needed for bone growth.

Deficiency: Very rare. Those at risk include premature infants, those who use antacids, alcoholics, uncontrolled diabetes mellitus and refeeding syndrome.

Don’t get more than this much:

  • Adults up to age 70: 4,000 milligrams per day. The limit is lower if you’re pregnant.
  • Pregnant women: 3,500 milligrams per day
  • Adults age 70 and older: 3,000 milligrams per day


Foods that have it: Potatoes, bananas, yogurt, milk, yellowfin tuna, soybeans, sweet potato, tomato, green leafy vegetables, carrots, prunes, beans, molasses, squash, fish, peaches, apricots, melon, dates, raisins, mushrooms

How much you need:

  • Adults: 4,700 milligrams per day, unless breastfeeding
  • Breastfeeding women: 5,100 milligrams per day

What it does: Helps control blood pressure, makes kidney stones less likely

Deficiency: Not a result of insufficient dietary intake. Caused

by protein wasting conditions. Diuretics can also cause excessive loss of potassium in the urine. Low blood potassium can result in cardiac arrest.

Don’t get more than this much: No upper limit known for adults. However, high doses of potassium can be deadly.


Foods that have it: Organ meats, seafood, dairy, some plants (if grown in soil with selenium), Brazil nuts, mushrooms, barley, salmon, whole grains, walnuts, eggs

How much you need:

  • Adults: 55 micrograms per day, unless pregnant or breastfeeding
  • Pregnant women: 60 micrograms per day
  • Breastfeeding women: 70 micrograms per day

What it does: Protects cells from damage. Helps manage thyroid hormone.

Deficiency: Can cause limited glutathione activity. More severe symptoms are juvenile cardiomyopathy and chondrodystrophy.

Don’t get more than this much: 400 micrograms per day for adults


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Foods that have it: Foods made with added salt, such as processed and restaurant foods, whole grains, legumes, nuts, seeds, vegetables

How much you need:

  • Adults ages 19-50: up to 1,500 milligrams per day
  • Adults ages 51-70: up to 1,300 milligrams per day
  • Adults age 71 and up: up to 1,200 milligrams per day

What it does: Important for fluid balance

Deficiency: Does not result from low dietary intake. Low blood sodium typically results from increased fluid retention. One may notice nausea, vomiting, headache, cramps, fatigue, and disorientation.

Don’t get more than this much: 2,300 milligrams per day for adults, or as instructed by your doctor, depending on whether you have certain conditions, like high blood pressure

Vitamin A

Foods that have it: Sweet potatoes, spinach, fortified cereals, carrots,pumpkin, green leafy vegetables, squash, cantaloupe, bell pepper, Chinese cabbage, beef, eggs, peaches

How much you need:

  • Men: 900 micrograms per day
  • Women: 700 micrograms per day
  • Pregnant women: 770 micrograms per day
  • Breastfeeding women: 1,300 micrograms per day

What it does: Needed for vision, the immune system, and reproduction

Deficiency: One may notice difficulty seeing in dim light and rough/dry skin

Don’t get more than this much: 3,000 micrograms per day for adults

Vitamin B1 (thiamine)

Foods that have it: Whole-grain, enriched, fortified products like bread and cereals, sunflower seeds, asparagus, lettuce, mushrooms, black beans, navy beans, lentils, spinach, peas, pinto beans, lima beans, eggplant, Brussels sprouts, tomatoes, tuna, whole wheat, soybeans

How much you need:

  • Men: 1.2 milligrams per day
  • Women: 1.1 milligrams per day, unless pregnant or breastfeeding
  • Pregnant or breastfeeding women: 1.4 milligram per day

What it does: Helps the body process carbs and some protein

Deficiency: Symptoms include burning feet, weakness in extremities, rapid heart rate, swelling, anorexia, nausea, fatigue, and gastrointestinal problems.

Don’t get more than this amount: No upper limit known for adults

Vitamin B2 (riboflavin)

Foods that have it: Milk, bread products, fortified cereals, almonds, soybeans/tempeh, mushrooms, spinach, whole wheat, yogurt, mackerel, eggs, liver.

How much you need:

  • Men: 1.3 milligrams per day
  • Women: 1.1 milligrams per day, unless pregnant or breastfeeding
  • Pregnant women: 1.4 milligrams per day
  • Breastfeeding women: 1.6 milligrams per day

What it does: Helps convert food into energy. Also helps make red blood cells.

Deficiency: Symptoms include cracks, fissures and sores at corner of mouth and lips, dermatitis, conjunctivitis, photophobia, glossitis of tongue, anxiety, loss of appetite, and fatigue.

Don’t get more than this much: No upper limit known for adults

Vitamin B3 (niacin)

Foods that have it: Meat, fish, poultry, enriched and whole grain breads, fortified cereals, mushrooms, asparagus, peanuts, brown rice, corn, green leafy vegetables, sweet potato, potato, lentil, barley, carrots, almonds, celery, turnips, peaches, chicken meat, tuna, salmon

How much you need:

  • Men: 16 milligrams per day
  • Women: 14 mg per day if not pregnant or breastfeeding
  • Pregnant women: 18 milligrams per day
  • Breastfeeding women: 17 milligrams per day

What it does: Helps with digestion and with making cholesterol

Deficiency: Symptoms include dermatitis, diarrhea, dementia, and stomatitis.

Don’t get more than this amount: No upper limit from natural sources. If you’re an adult and are taking niacin supplements, or getting niacin from fortified foods, don’t get more than 35 milligrams per day.

Vitamin B5 (pantothenic acid)

Foods that have it: Chicken, beef, potatoes, oats, cereals, tomatoes, broccoli, lentils, split peas, avocado, whole wheat, mushrooms, sweet potato, sunflower seeds, cauliflower, green leafy vegetables, eggs, squash, strawberries, liver

How much you need:

  • Adults: 5 milligrams per day, except for pregnant or breastfeeding women
  • Pregnant women: 6 milligrams per day
  • Breastfeeding women: 7 milligrams per day

What it does: Helps turn carbs, protein, and fat into energy

Deficiency: Very unlikely. Only in severe malnutrition may one notice tingling of feet.

Don’t get more than this much: No upper limit known for adults

Vitamin B6

Foods that have it: Fortified cereals, fortified soy products, chickpeas, potatoes, organ meats,whole wheat, brown rice, green leafy vegetables, sunflower seeds, potato, garbanzo beans, banana, trout, spinach, tomatoes, avocado, walnuts, peanut butter, tuna, salmon, lima beans, bell peppers, chicken meat

How much you need:

  • Men and women ages 19-50: 1.3 milligrams per day, except for pregnant or breastfeeding women
  • Pregnant women: 1.9 milligrams per day
  • Breastfeeding women: 2 milligrams per day
  • Men age 51 and up: 1.7 milligrams per day
  • Women age 51 and up: 1.5 milligrams per day

What it does: Helps with metabolism, the immune system, and babies’ brain development

Deficiency: Symptoms include cheilosis, glossitis, stomatitis, dermatitis (all similar to vitamin B2 deficiency), nervous system disorders, sleeplessness, confusion, nervousness, depression, irritability, interference with nerves that supply muscles and difficulties in movement of these muscles, and anemia. Prenatal deprivation results in mental retardation and blood disorders for the newborn.

Don’t get more than this amount: 100 milligrams per day for adults

Vitamin B7 (biotin)

Foods that have it: Liver, fruits, meats, green leafy vegetables, most nuts, whole grain breads, avocado, raspberries, cauliflower, carrots, papaya, banana, salmon, eggs

How much you need:

  • Adults: 30 micrograms per day, except for breastfeeding women
  • Breastfeeding women: 35 micrograms per day

What it does: Helps your body make fats, protein, and other things your cells need

Deficiency: Very rare in humans. Keep in mind that consuming raw egg whites over a long period of time can cause biotin deficiency. Egg whites contain the protein avidin, which binds to biotin and prevents its absorption.

Don’t get more than this amount: No upper limit known

Vitamin B12

Foods that have it: Fish, poultry, meat, dairy products, fortified cereals,liver, trout, salmon, tuna, haddock, egg

How much you need:

  • Adults: 2.4 micrograms per day, except for pregnant or breastfeeding women
  • Pregnant women: 2.6 micrograms per day
  • Breastfeeding women: 2.8 micrograms per day

What it does: Helps your body make red blood cells

Deficiency: Symptoms include pernicious anemia, neurological problems and sprue.

Don’t get more than this amount: No upper limit known

Vitamin C

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Foods that have it: Red and green peppers, oranges and other citrus fruits, strawberries, broccoli, tomatoes, guava, bell pepper, kiwi, grapefruit, Brussels sprouts, cantaloupe, papaya, sweet potato, pineapple, cauliflower, kale, lemon juice, parsley

How much you need:

  • Men: 90 milligrams per day
  • Women: 75 milligrams per day, unless pregnant or breastfeeding
  • Pregnant women: 85 milligrams per day
  • Breastfeeding women: 120 milligrams per day
  • Smokers: Add 35 milligrams to the numbers above.

What it does: Helps protect against cell damage, supports the immune system, and helps your body make collagen

Deficiency: Symptoms include bruising, gum infections, lethargy, dental cavities, tissue swelling, dry hair and skin, bleeding gums, dry eyes, hair loss, joint pain, pitting edema, anemia, delayed wound healing, and bone fragility. Long-term deficiency results in scurvy.

Don’t get more than this much: 2,000 milligrams per day for adults

Vitamin D

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Foods that have it: Fish liver oils, fatty fish, fortified milk products, fortified cereals, sunlight, mushrooms, salmon, mackerel, sardines, tuna, eggs

How much you need:

  • Adults ages 19-70: 600 international units (IU) per day
  • Adults age 71 and older: 800 international units per day

What it does: Needed for bones, muscles, the immune system, and communication between the brain and the rest of your body

Deficiency: In children a vitamin D deficiency can result in rickets, deformed bones, retarded growth, and soft teeth. In adults a vitamin D deficiency can result in osteomalacia, softened bones, spontaneous fractures, and tooth decay. Those at risk for deficiency include infants, elderly, dark skinned individuals, those with minimal sun exposure, fat malabsorption syndromes, inflammatory bowel diseases, kidney failure, and seizure disorders.

Don’t get more than this much: 4,000 international units per day for adults unless directed by your doctor

Vitamin E

Foods that have it: Fortified cereals, sunflower seeds, peanut butter, vegetable oils, green leafy vegetables, almonds, olives, blueberries, most nuts, most seeds, tomatoes, avocado

How much you need:

  • Adults: 15 milligrams per day or 22.5 international units. That includes pregnant women.
  • Breastfeeding women: 19 milligrams per day, 28.5 IU

What it does: Helps protect cells against damage

Deficiency: Only noticed in those with severe malnutrition. However, suboptimal intake of vitamin E is relatively common.

Don’t get more than this amount: 1,000 milligrams per day for adults

Vitamin K

Foods that have it: Spinach, collards, and broccoli; cabbage, green leafy vegetables, parsley, watercress, asparagus, Brussels sprouts, green beans, green peas, carrots

How much you need:

  • Men: 120 micrograms per day
  • Women: 90 micrograms per day

What it does: Important in blood clotting and bone health

Deficiency: Tendency to bleed or hemorrhage and anemia.

Don’t get more than this amount: Unknown


Foods that have it: Red meats, some seafood, fortified cereals, mushrooms, spinach, sesame seeds, pumpkin seeds, green peas, baked beans, cashews, peas, whole grains, flounder, oats, oysters, chicken meat

How much you need:

  • Men: 11 milligrams per day
  • Women: 8 milligrams per day, unless pregnant or breastfeeding
  • Pregnant women: 11 milligrams per day
  • Breastfeeding women: 12 milligrams per day

What it does: Supports your immune system and nerve function. Also important for reproduction.

Deficiency: Symptoms include growth retardation, lowered immune statue, skeletal abnormalities, delay in sexual maturation, poor wound healing, taste changes, night blindness and hair loss. Those at risk for deficiency include the elderly, alcoholics, those with malabsorption, vegans, and those with severe diarrhea.

Don’t get more than this amount: 40 mg per day for adults

Vitamin solubility and absorption

Fat soluble vitamins are mostly absorbed passively and must be transported with dietary fat. These vitamins are usually found in the portion of the cell which contains fat, including membranes, lipid droplets, etc.

We tend to excrete fat soluble vitamins via feces, but we can also store them in fatty tissues.

If we don’t eat enough dietary fat, we don’t properly absorb these vitamins. A very low-fat diet can lead to deficiencies of fat-soluble vitamins.

Water soluble vitamins are absorbed by both passive and active mechanisms. Their transport in the body relies on molecular “carriers”.

Water soluble vitamins are not stored in high amounts within the body and are excreted in the urine along with their breakdown products.

Mineral absorption

Our bodies and the foods we eat contain minerals; we actually absorb them in a charged state (i.e., ionic state). Minerals will be in either a positive or negative state and reside inside or outside or cells.

Molecules found in food can alter our ability to absorb minerals. This includes things like phytates (found in grains), oxalate (found in foods like spinach and rhubarb), both of which inhibit mineral absorption, and acids. Even gastric acidity and stress can influence absorption.

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If you use a vitamin/mineral supplement, look for one providing nutrients derived from whole foods. Make sure this includes natural forms of vitamin E rather than the synthetic versions. Vitamin A should come from precursors like carotenoids and not preformed retinoids.

Women still menstruating should probably include supplemental iron. Men typically do not need additional iron (and in some men, it can be actively harmful).

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