First aid for fractures

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Fractures are classified as complete and incomplete by the completeness of bone rupture, with and without displacement in the position of the fragments in relation to each other, open and closed by the presence of skin damage.

There are certain signs that may indicate the presence of a fracture. These symptoms include:

  • Severe pain at the site of injury;
  • Deformation of the limb;
  • The unnatural position of the limb;
  • Swelling, hemorrhage;

First aid for fractures always includes restoration of the integrity of the bone, stopping bleeding, antiseptic treatment of the wound, immobilization of the limb. The patient must be very carefully transported to a medical facility for medical care.

Broken arm
What can you do?
A hand fracture is one of the most common types of fractures encountered in everyday life. It is very important to be able to provide first aid. The most important thing is to immobilize the hand in time, otherwise, a closed fracture may turn into an open one. For immobilization, a splint must be applied to the arm and fixed. As a tire, you can use materials at hand: aboard, plywood, a thick branch, etc. There are several types of splints, which must be selected depending on the type of fracture.

Cramer’s stair rail is made of wire. It must be applied over clothing. The splint is modeled on the healthy arm and then applied to the injured limb. It is important that the splint covers two joints.

Pneumatic tires are sealed chambers inside which the limb is placed. There are three main types of pneumatic tires – for the hand and forearm, for the foot and lower leg, and for the thigh. This type of tire is easy to use and is most often used not only by ambulance personnel, but also by the Emergencies Ministry, disaster medicine, and sports medicine. These types of splints can be used not only for fractures, but also for bruises, hemorrhages, and joint injuries.

With severe pain, you can take an analgesic drug – analgin, ketorol, ibuprofen. Hang the arm with the splint in a bent position at the elbow. With the development of pain shock – that is, the body’s reaction to pain, in which the nervous and cardiovascular system suffers, it is important to take immediate measures. Otherwise, this condition can lead to death. It is important to provide first aid to the victim before an ambulance arrives. Confusion, lethargy, pallor, a decrease in body temperature, a decrease in muscle tone, the patient does not understand what is happening to him, testify to the development of painful shock in the victim. At the next stage, the blood pressure drops to 90-100 mm Hg, the rapid pulse is up to 120 beats. per minute, cold sweat.

A victim with symptoms of pain shock must be warmed with heating pads, blankets, and given hot tea. When vomiting or injuring the abdominal cavity, drinking is prohibited.

The victim can be transported only after the symptoms of shock have been eliminated.

With an open arm fracture, the first step is to stop the bleeding. To do this, a tourniquet must be applied to the area above the wound. The tourniquet is a durable rubber strip. The tourniquet is applied for 30-40 minutes, depending on the condition of the person, the season. The longer application can be fraught with necrosis because the limb is essentially cut off from the blood flow, which can be fraught with the development of oxygen starvation. What to do if there is no tourniquet at hand? You can apply an impromptu tool, for example, a piece of cloth, tape, rope, your own belt, etc.

There are two types of harnesses – ribbon and funnel-shaped. A tape harness is a small piece of rubber tape. It can have holes for buttons or buttons that allow you to fasten it.

Funnel tourniquets are commonly used in extreme conditions. They are a wide synthetic tape fastened with Velcro, which provides a secure fit. Often these tourniquets are equipped with a medical beacon that tracks application time.

Treat the wound with an antiseptic in order to prevent infection. After stopping the bleeding and treating the wound, the hand must be fixed.

What not to do?
You cannot jerk your hand trying to straighten the bones, putting them in a certain position.

Broken leg
A leg fracture is also one of the most common types of fractures and occurs in people of all ages. The most common causes of its development are injuries during a fall, impact, road traffic accidents, in athletes due to professional activities, in children due to their high mobility, in the elderly – due to age-related changes in bones (osteoporosis).

For leg fractures, the following symptoms are typical:

  • Impaired limb mobility;
  • Acute pain in the area of ​​the fracture;
  • If large arteries are damaged, severe open bleeding develops with an open fracture, hemorrhages inside the tissue are possible with closed fractures;
  • Damage to the nerves can lead to a violation of innervation, as a result of which there may be a lack of sensitivity.

What can you do?
First aid for a broken leg consists in fixing it with a splint from available tools – aboard, a large branch, a ski pole, etc. In case of a broken leg, Dieterich’s splint is used. It consists of wooden structures – boards with drilled holes. The parts are connected to each other and allow you to completely immobilize the limb. This type of splint is indicated for massive tissue damage, burns, frostbite, prolonged squeezing, damage to blood vessels and nerves.

It is necessary to stop the bleeding by placing a tourniquet above the wound. The wound must be treated with antiseptics. For severe pain, give pain relievers such as analgin, ketorol, ibuprofen. The victim must be taken to a medical facility as soon as possible to provide qualified assistance.

What not to do?
In no case should you try to straighten the bone yourself. This can make the situation worse.

Spine fracture
A spinal fracture is one of the most severe, as it poses a threat to the patient’s life. It is very important to quickly provide first aid to the patient, fix the body in a motionless state, and give an anesthetic. Even the smallest damage to the spine can make a person disabled for the rest of his life, leading to a complete loss of motor abilities. Fractures of the spine occur when falling from a great height, diving into the depth, with strong blows to the back, with malignant tumors, osteoporosis.

The danger of a spinal fracture is that splinters of bone can damage the spinal cord as it passes through the spinal canal. Damage to nerve fibers, blood vessels can lead to a complete loss of sensitivity and motor ability of the limbs.

Signs of a spinal fracture include:

  • Sharp pain in the area of ​​the fracture, which may be accompanied by loss of consciousness or a sharp drop in blood pressure;
  • With a fracture of the cervical spine, the head is in an unnatural position, breathing is impaired. In most cases, instant death occurs.
  • When a fracture is located in the thoracic spine, breathing is disturbed, and sometimes it stops completely;
  • With fractures of the lumbar spine, involuntary urination may occur, and the motor ability of the legs is impaired.

What can you do?
First aid for a spinal fracture is primarily pain relief. The victim should be given the strongest pain relievers available. It is necessary to immobilize the patient’s body as much as possible, put it on a firm horizontal surface. During transportation, you can use a board, door, plywood. The head must be fixed with a hard collar made of any available materials, cotton wool, soft fabric, etc. It must be remembered that any movement can cause acute pain and cause additional injury to the victim.

What not to do?

  • It is categorically impossible to try to put the patient;
  • You cannot try to raise the patient and put him on his feet;
  • Do not pull and pull the patient by the legs or arms;
  • Try to straighten the spine;
  • Do not forcibly give medications to a patient if he is unconscious.

Fracture of the pelvis
A pelvic fracture is one of the most severe fractures of the musculoskeletal system. It can provoke the development of severe complications up to lifelong disability and death. Pelvic fractures are dangerous by the development of severe internal bleeding, shock, which aggravates the patient’s condition.

A fracture of the pelvis can occur as a result of a fall from a height, in an accident, squeezing. The characteristic symptoms are:

  • Severe pain in the pelvic region, groin, lower abdomen;
  • Bruising in the perineum;
  • On examination, deformation may be noticeable;
  • With massive bleeding – shock, a sharp drop in blood pressure;
  • The patient takes the forced pose of the “frog” with the legs bent at the knees.

What can you do?
First aid for fracture of the pelvic bones includes:

  • Examination of the patient’s body for other injuries;
  • Immobilization of the patient in a horizontal position with bent knees in the “frog” position;
  • Fixation of the pelvis by bandaging with available material, for example, clothing;
  • Place a roller under your knees;
  • Before the arrival of an ambulance, it is necessary to monitor the patient’s condition, feel the pulse, and measure the pressure.

What not to do?

  • It is strictly forbidden to try to put the patient on his feet;
  • Trying to put the sick person.

Broken ribs
Rib fractures are the most common chest injury. Its danger is presented with the risk of damage to internal organs, lungs, cardiovascular system, as well as difficulty breathing.

With multiple fractures of the ribs (more than 3), the pleura, lungs, cardiovascular system can be damaged, which is fraught with serious complications. With uncomplicated fractures of 1-2 ribs, recovery occurs by itself, and no intervention by doctors is required.

A rib fracture can be caused by a direct blow to the chest area or compression.

Symptoms of rib fracture include chest pain, difficulty breathing in and out. The fracture site may be swollen and painful. In more complex cases, pneumonia and cough may develop.

What can you do?
In most cases, rib fractures do not require fixation. In the absence of complications, recovery occurs on its own. The exception is complex and multiple fractures. With a fracture of 3 or more ribs, urgent hospitalization and qualified assistance are required.

What not to do?
If your ribs are broken, you need to limit physical activity, such as playing sports. Sudden movements (for example, bending forward, backward) can provoke painful sensations.

Shin fracture
Shin fractures are common injuries in both children and adults. Most often, it develops as a result of an unsuccessful fall, for example, when skiing, skating, falling from a height, as well as in an accident. Less commonly, a leg fracture can develop when a heavy object is hit or dropped on the leg.

Symptoms of a shin fracture common to most fractures include:

  • Severe pain at the fracture site
  • Open fracture bleeding:
  • Swelling of the lower leg at the site of the fracture, hemorrhage;
  • Possible deformation of the lower leg with a displacement of the bones.

What can you do?
To provide first aid in case of a fracture of the lower leg, the limb must be fixed by applying a splint from the available means. Give the patient anesthetic (Analgin, ibuprofen, ketorol). If there is bleeding, apply a tourniquet above the wound and then transport it to a medical facility.

What not to do?
You cannot try to set the bone on your own, leave the injured limb unsecured.

Shoulder fracture
The incidence of shoulder fractures is about 7% of all fractures. A shoulder fracture is accompanied by severe pain, swelling, deformity, and shortening of the limb. Movement in the hand may be limited; if the nerves are damaged, the patient cannot straighten the hand and move his fingers on his own. If fragments are present, the crunching of bone fragments can be heard. A complication of a shoulder fracture is internal hemorrhage, for example, into the joint cavity.

What can you do?
When providing first aid, you must:

  • Calm the victim, give pain relievers (Analgin, ketorol, ibuprofen). As a cardiovascular agent – valocordin, cordiamine.
  • Limit hand movements. For this, immobilization is performed using splints from available tools. Planks can be used. One is applied to the shoulder, the other to the forearm. The arm is fixed in a bent position at the elbow, for this, it is necessary to put the hand in a kerchief thrown over the healthy shoulder. The bend of the arm should be at right angles to the elbow. In order to prevent the displacement of bones, the dressing must be tied as tightly as possible.
  • During transportation, it is necessary that the person sit.

What not to do?

  • You cannot try to eliminate any shoulder deformities on your own;
  • It is impossible to transport the victim without fixing the limb.

Hip fracture
Hip fracture is another common fracture that occurs in both children and adults. The causes of a hip fracture are often falling car accidents. In older people, hip fractures are caused by osteoporosis, a condition in which bone becomes fragile. In older people, a slight fall can cause a fracture of the femur.

The characteristic symptoms of a fracture include severe pain in the area of ​​damage, tissue edema, and limb deformity. In this case, the leg is usually turned outward. There is no movement. Perhaps shortening of the thigh, lack of sensitivity. The most severe complication of a hip fracture is massive hemorrhage in the soft tissues of the hip. The fracture can be complicated by the presence of bone fragments injuring soft tissue.

What can you do?
First aid for a hip fracture includes:

  • Stopping bleeding by applying a tourniquet;
  • Pain relief with analgesics such as analgin, ibuprofen, etc.
  • Fixation of a limb using a splint from available tools;
  • Immobilization of the victim and his transportation to a medical facility.

What not to do?

  • You cannot try to straighten the bones on your own, correct the deformation;
  • Pull the limb.
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