First aid for bleeding

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With the development of severe bleeding from large vessels, the patient must be provided with medical care, since significant blood loss poses a great threat to health and can lead to death.

The causes of bleeding are always damage to the vessel wall (arteries or veins), it can occur for various reasons:

  • Injuries from stab wounds, bruises, etc.
  • Oncological diseases or inflammatory processes in the vascular wall;
  • The fragility of the vessel wall is due to a lack of vitamins, infections, or poisoning.

Bleeding is divided into arterial (from arteries), venous (from veins), capillary, internal (bleeding into internal organs or cavities), mixed (with damage to both arteries and veins).

Arterial bleeding
Arterial bleeding has a bright scarlet color and flows pulsating. Arterial bleeding is the most dangerous, since a person can lose a lot of blood in a short time, which can be fatal. Measures to stop bleeding should be applied immediately.

What can you do?
When providing first aid for arterial bleeding, it is necessary:

  • Press your thumb on the artery above the wound to stop or at least relieve bleeding;
  • apply a rubber or any other homemade tourniquet (whatever comes under your hands, for example, a belt, cord, etc.) on the artery above the wound, this will reduce blood loss;
  • leave a note indicating the time of the application of the tourniquet;
  • bandage the wound;
  • after providing assistance to the victim, he should be immediately sent to a specialized medical institution (hospital or clinic).

What not to do?

  • Do not leave the tourniquet for more than 2 hours after its application, otherwise, tissue necrosis may occur.

Venous bleeding
In contrast to arterial bleeding, blood with venous bleeding has a darker color and does not pulsate. However, if large veins are affected, venous bleeding can also be dangerous and lead to death if the necessary measures are not taken in time.

What can you do?
When providing first aid for venous bleeding, it is necessary:

  • lift the injured limb up;
  • apply a pressure bandage to the wound, compressing the soft walls of the damaged vessel (in case of severe bleeding, apply a tourniquet above the wound);
  • send the victim to a healthcare facility.

What not to do?

  • Do not try to rinse the wound or remove small objects from it, such as glass shards;
  • Do not try to remove blood clots, or bleeding may open.

Nose bleed
There are many reasons for the development of nosebleeds. These include the weakness of the vascular wall of the nasal mucosa. Sometimes it is enough to blow your nose or sneeze hard enough to cause nosebleeds. Often, nosebleeds develop in those suffering from high blood pressure. Bleeding can also occur from changes in atmospheric pressure. Trauma to the nose is another of the most common causes of bleeding.

What can you do?
To provide first aid for nosebleeds, you must:

  • place a dense cotton swab in the nasal cavity, and tilt your head slightly forward;
  • apply cold to the bridge of the nose, which will narrow blood vessels and reduce bleeding;
  • if the bleeding has not stopped within 15 minutes, you need to call an ambulance.

What not to do?

  • You cannot tilt your head back. This can facilitate the entry of blood into the respiratory tract or digestive tract;
  • after stopping the bleeding for some time, you should not blow your nose, as this can resume bleeding. You should refrain from hot food and drinks, as this can dilate the blood vessels.

Gastric bleeding
The main reasons for the development of gastric bleeding are diseases of the gastrointestinal tract and some other conditions. These include:

  • peptic ulcer of the stomach and duodenum;
  • diverticulum of the stomach;
  • stomach cancer;
  • benign stomach neoplasms or polyps;
  • erosion of the gastric mucosa or erosive gastritis;
  • taking certain groups of drugs that irritate the gastric mucosa (acetylsalicylic acid, non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs, etc.);
    stress;
  • postoperative situations;

For internal bleeding, including gastric bleeding, certain symptoms are characteristic:

  • severe weakness, up to fainting;
  • the pallor of the skin, blue fingers, nose, lips;
  • cold sweat;
  • tinnitus, “flies” before the eyes.

Other symptoms of gastrointestinal bleeding include nausea, vomiting with coagulated blood in the form of “coffee grounds”, abdominal pain, stools of a characteristic black tarry color.

What can you do?
With the development of gastrointestinal bleeding, emergency medical care is necessary. Before the ambulance arrives, the following measures must be taken:

  • lay the patient with his back on a hard surface in a horizontal position;
  • when vomiting, control the turn of the head to the side in order to prevent choking with vomit;
  • put cold on your stomach (ice or a bottle of cold water). Control the temperature to prevent frostbite;
  • monitor blood pressure levels. When the pressure drops below 100 mm Hg. bleeding becomes more severe.

What not to do?

  • do not move the patient, ensure rest, and stay in a horizontal position lying on a hard surface;
  • exclude food and liquid intake. If thirsty, you can give an ice cube.
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