Rosehip is a perennial shrub of the rose family. Today, there are up to five hundred species of rose hips. From early spring, the bushes are covered with flowers, which turn into ripe berries by the beginning of September.
The medicinal properties of wild rose flowers are widely known, and their fruits are widely used in traditional medicine. The berries contain a large amount of ascorbic acid of useful microelements: potassium, magnesium, calcium, sodium. Rosehip has long been used as a multivitamin. Tea is brewed from autumn nuts, and the petals turn into fragrant sweet jam.
The history of the appearance of rose hips in nutrition
The cultivation of wild rose everywhere began in ancient times. The mountain slopes of Iran and the Himalayas are recognized as the official homeland of wild rose, but today the medicinal plant can be found in diametrically opposite corners of our planet, even beyond the Arctic Circle. Rosehip fruits were used as food in settlements living on the territory of present-day Switzerland, even at the end of the Ice Age. Healthy berries were eaten both raw and in the form of decoctions. The healing properties of wild rose were also widely used in Ancient Greece and Rome, later references to its use for medicinal purposes were found in the writings of the famous scientist and physician Avicenna.
In Russia, the dog rose was called svoroborina or svoborin tree from the word “svoroba”, which meant “itching.” But over time, the name turned into the well-known “rosehip” with a reference to the word “thorn”, which is associated with the sharp thorns-thorns growing on the shoots of the bush.
In ancient Russia, the dog rose was worth its weight in gold. Whole expeditions went to the Orenburg steppes for its flowers and fruits. In the Pharmaceutical Order of 1620, it is indicated that at the beginning of the 17th century, doctors were given the opportunity to receive healing fruits only from the Kremlin storehouse with the permission of the tsar. Russian healers used rosehip paste in the treatment of wounds, and with a decoction of its berries, which was called “Svoroborin’s treacle”, they soldered the warriors.
Of the approximately 500 known species of rose hips, about 100 species are represented on the territory of Russia. The most widespread are such types of rose hips as May, dog, cinnamon, Daurian, spiny, and others.
Composition and calorie content
Rosehip fruits contain sugars, tannins, organic acids, pectins, and flavonoids. However, the main advantage of rose hips is a large amount of vitamins C, P, A, B2, K, E.
Ascorbic acid in the composition of rose hips is approximately 10 times more than in black currant berries, 50 times more than in lemon. The highest content of ascorbic acid is observed in white-flowered and red-flowered species.
Caloric content per 100 g 109 kcal
Proteins 1.6 g
Fat 0.7 g
Carbohydrates 22.4 g
Rose petals and rosehip leaves contain essential and fatty oils, organic acids, sugars, glycosides, flavonoids, tannins, anthocyanins, wax, and vitamin C.
Rose hips are used as a tonic, immunostimulating, tonic, anti-inflammatory, choleretic, and diuretic. The constant use of rose hips strengthens the walls of the capillaries, enhances tissue regeneration, and also has a beneficial effect on metabolism. Rosehip decoctions are used for the prevention and treatment of vitamin deficiency, colds, and flu, for the prevention of atherosclerosis, as well as for disorders of the digestive system, weakened joints, and dry skin.
According to research from the University of Agriculture and Technology of North Carolina USA, the extract isolated from rose hips has a significant effect on suppressing the increase in the number and migration of malignant cells in cancerous tumors.
Rosehip roots, leaves, petals, and seeds also have a variety of beneficial properties. Rosehip roots in the form of infusions, decoctions, and tinctures are used in the treatment of kidney and gall bladder stones, as well as for a tonic and tonic effect. Rosehip seed oil is used externally for the treatment of inflammatory diseases of the oral cavity, dermatoses, trophic ulcers, bedsores, eczema. Various cosmetics (lotions, decoctions) are made from rosehip petals, syrups, and jams that are boiled. Rosehip petals are often used in tonic and vitamin herbal preparations and teas.
The benefits of rose hips for women
The rich composition of rose hips stimulates the improvement of the functioning of the internal organs, which has a positive effect on appearance. Over time, the restoration of the skin is normalized, dryness and flaking of the skin decreases, and the secretion of excess subcutaneous fat is stabilized. Even chemically treated brittle and dry hair will look healthy. A light massage with rosehip essential oil will help restore skin elasticity in case of stretch marks and varicose veins.
Rose hips cannot magically shed those extra pounds. However, thanks to their use, it is possible to balance and normalize the metabolism, which will speed up the process of fat burning.
Rosehip plays an important role during pregnancy. Infusions and decoctions with rose hips allow expectant mothers to more easily endure bouts of toxicosis, increase the level of hemoglobin and prevent the formation of anemia. Herbal preparations and teas based on rose hips stimulate the woman’s immunity, which decreases during pregnancy. Therefore, the risk of catching a cold or flu is reduced, and in the event of an illness, its course will pass easily.
The benefits of rose hips for men
Rose hips are often included in herbal preparations used to improve men’s health. The use of broths and rosehip infusions prevents diseases of the genitourinary system, is used as a prophylaxis and treatment of prostatitis, and also helps to reduce the risk of cardiovascular pathologies. Rosehip stabilizes the level of pressure, as well as the process of hematopoiesis, reducing cholesterol levels.
The benefits of rose hips for children
Substances in the composition of rose hips have an analgesic and anti-inflammatory effect, accelerate the process of tissue recovery and regeneration, reduce vascular permeability, have a positive effect on metabolism, increase the body’s defenses against various infections, and also activate mental and physical capabilities, which is especially important at the stage development of the child’s body.
Decoctions and infusions of rose hips have a healing effect, especially in the cool season, when the level of immunity decreases. The constant use of the fruits of the medicinal plant will help avoid colds, stimulate the healing process and the speed of recovery after illness.
The use of rose hips has a number of contraindications. Doctors do not recommend using rose hips for people with the following diseases:
- increased gastric secretion (high acidity);
- gastritis or peptic ulcer;
- allergic reactions;
- blood clots in blood vessels, thrombophlebitis;
- endocarditis (inflammation of the heart muscle).
Eating an excessive amount of rose hips can lead to unpleasant consequences for all lovers of healing with a healing plant, including healthy ones. There are a number of reasons for this:
- there is a thinning of the tooth enamel;
- increased blood pressure;
- there is a risk of developing obstructive jaundice;
- the secretion of bile decreases;
- constipation is possible.
Often, negative consequences arise due to non-compliance with the dosage of the medication. In accordance with the WHO recommendations, the daily intake of ascorbic acid for a healthy person is 70-100 mg, which corresponds to 10 rose hips.
When using rose hips for the prevention of various diseases, it is suggested to adhere to the recommended dose and not to increase the duration of intake. However, if rose hips are to be used for the treatment of any pathology, it is necessary to consult a doctor and make sure that there are no contraindications.
Use in medicine
Not only rose hips have found their application in medicine, but also seeds, flowers, leaves, and roots. Only 1-3 berries compensate for the daily dose of vitamin C.
According to the expert opinion of the oncologist, the preparations created on the basis of the extract isolated from the rose hips are an effective means of preventing breast cancer, as well as an additional element in working schemes of anticancer therapy.
Tablets, pills, syrups, and rosehip infusions are used for the prevention and treatment of various diseases associated with a lack of vitamins, anemia, and exhaustion. Rosehip-based medicines have a beneficial effect on carbohydrate metabolism, the work of the bone marrow, liver, and gallbladder.
In traditional medicine, almost all parts of the rosehip are used. Rosehip seed infusion is used as a diuretic, choleretic and anti-inflammatory agent, rosehip root infusion is used as an astringent, antiseptic, and choleretic, and a decoction of flowers and leaves has an antimicrobial, analgesic effect and is used as a universal remedy for the stomach. However, you do not need to self-medicate – for any symptoms of illness, you should contact your doctor.
From bright red berries, you can make jam, marmalade, marshmallow, compote, jelly, and other treats. Representatives of the Swedish and Armenian cuisine often make soups from rose hips. Rosehip jam is often included in various sauces.