According to statistics, 90% of the population is not satisfied with their appearance. At the same time, most noticeable problems with weight do not. It so happens that the desire to lose weight becomes an obsession. Doctors call this disease anorexia. Today, anorexia is quite widespread, but not everyone knows its “face”. Usually, people who suffer from this disease, achieve weight loss by three methods: through strict diets, high physical exertion and using cleansing procedures.
Approximately 95% of those suffering from anorexia are women. Already from adolescence, girls want to get closer to the “fashionable” standards. They torture themselves with diets, chasing a slim figure. Most of all patients are among girls of 12-25 years old and, as a rule, not suffering from overweight (calorizer). But complexes that are laid from adolescence, as well as other factors contributing to the development of anorexia, may appear much later.
Causes of anorexia
Anorexia is a disease that is difficult to treat. Its causes and symptoms are super complex. Sometimes it takes years to fight. Statistics of mortality is amazing: in 20% it ends sadly.
According to scientists, the impetus for anorexia can be not only mental disorders. Dutch researchers studied the DNA of patients with anorexia. It turned out that 11% of patients have the same genetic prerequisites. Therefore, scientists believe that there is no doubt that there are hereditary factors that increase the likelihood of developing this disease.
French scientists have managed to find out that anorexia, like ecstasy, affects the control center of appetite and pleasures in our brain. Thus, the very feeling of hunger can cause addiction, which is similar to the drug.
Anorexia may occur as a result of hormonal imbalance in the body or be a consequence of education. If the mother was obsessed with her weight and diets, then her daughter may eventually develop complexes that will initiate anorexia.
A common cause of the development of the disease becomes a feature of the psyche of the patient. As a rule, these are people with low self-esteem and excessively high demands on themselves. Sometimes the cause can be stressful factors. Strong stress changes the production of hormones and neurotransmitters in the brain, as a result of which depression and anorexia can develop.
Features of the disease
Repeatedly, physicians witness how people react with envy to anorexics, as they can lose weight without feeling the need for food. Unfortunately, they pay attention only to the first manifestation of this disease – the problem-free loss of body weight. They do not want to be aware of the danger of the disease. After all, patients around the clock suffer from feelings of their own imperfections, frightened by their own phobias.
Anorexics are constantly experiencing anxiety and depression. Virtually lose control of consciousness. These people are obsessed with extra calories.
Most patients, while in this state, continue to assure that they have no health problems. Attempts to convince and talk end in defeat. The whole difficulty lies in the fact that a person cannot trust anyone in such a state, because, in fact, he does not believe in himself. Not realizing the reality, it is hard to stop and get a hold of yourself.
The main signs of anorexia:
- The desire to lose weight at any cost;
- Fear of getting better;
- Obsessions with regard to food (diet, manic calorie counting, narrowing the range of interests to losing weight);
- Frequent refusal to eat (main arguments: “I have recently eaten”, “I am not hungry”, “No appetite”);
- Use of rituals (for example, chewing too thoroughly, “picking” in a plate, using miniature dishes);
- Guilt and anxiety after eating;
- Avoiding holidays and various events;
- The desire to drive themselves in training;
- Aggressiveness in defending their own convictions;
- Sleep disturbance;
- Termination of menstruation;
- Depressed state;
- Feeling of loss of control over your own life;
- Rapid weight loss (30% or more of the age norm);
- Weakness and dizziness;
- Constant chilliness;
- Decreased libido.
These signs are characteristic of many losing weight, which is already an alarming bell. When a person becomes obsessed and begins to distort himself, for example, too thick with normal body weight, then it is already the alarm.
Society dictates the fashion for everything, including the idea of beauty. But in recent years, the image of a skinny girl is gradually becoming a thing of the past. Designers try to choose healthy girls for work.
In the treatment of anorexia, somatic improvement, behavioral, cognitive, and family psychotherapy are key elements. Pharmacotherapy at best is an addition to other types of psychotherapy. The integral components of the treatment are alimentary rehabilitation and measures aimed at restoring body weight.
Cognitive behavioral psychotherapy will help in the normalization of body weight. It is aimed at correcting a distorted perception of oneself and returning to oneself a sense of one’s own value.
Psychotherapy sometimes complements drug therapy to restore the metabolism and normal emotional state. In severe cases, patients need hospitalization. Anorexics is treated by a whole team of doctors: a psychiatrist, a psychotherapist, an endocrinologist and a nutritionist.
Rehabilitation programs typically use emotional care and support, as well as a variety of behavioral psychotherapy techniques that provide a combination of reinforcing stimuli that combine physical exercises, bed rest, in addition, priority is given to target body weight, desired behaviors and informative feedback.
Therapeutic nutrition of patients suffering from anorexia is an important part of their treatment. With chronic fasting, energy demand is reduced. Consequently, weight gain can be facilitated by first providing a relatively low calorie intake and then gradually increasing it (calorizator). There are several schemes for increasing nutrition, compliance with which guarantees the absence of side effects and complications such as edema, impaired mineral metabolism, and damage to the digestive organs.
Possible outcome of the disease:
- Relapsing (renewing) flow;
Death due to irreversible changes in the internal organs. According to statistics, without treatment, the mortality of patients with anorexia nervosa is 5-10%.
Everything in the world has its limits, beauty is no exception. Unfortunately, not everyone feels when you need to say to yourself “stop.” After all, slim body is beautiful! Watch your health.